This course will survey the later prehistory of the Italian peninsula by examining the evolution of complex societies from the end of the Bronze Age to the Roman period (2nd-1st centuries BCE), with particular attention to the current state of research and new methodologies. At the heart of this endeavor will be an examination of the way that material culture illuminates the social landscape. Through the examination of specific objects, groups of objects, or archaeological contexts, we will address specific issues of cultural identity, status, gender, belief system, spatial hierarchy, and visuality.